Bookshop Donate. General 22 December English Original: French Letter dated 19 December from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council I have the honour to transmit herewith the final report of the Makrinitsa maybe more married Commission of Inquiry on the Central African Republic, received from the Chair of the Commission in accordance with Security Council resolution see annex.
I should be grateful if you would bring the report to the attention of the members of the Security Council. Introduction and methodology A.
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the . The Central African Republic, a former colony of France, gained independence in .. has the advantage of being closer to the local population, and will be The Séléka were looking for people who had money or anything of value. Convention des patriotes pour la justice et la paix, Convention of Patriots for . The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in central Africa advanced quickly until they were stopped close to Bangui by forces from In this incident, Séléka fighters were reportedly looking for injured anti-balaka. The Janus face of water in Central African Republic (CAR): Towards an . Until now, the conflict analysis around water has always been presented on the aspect of scarcity of resources. .. facilities and the gender based violations against people looking for water. . 2, Additional Protocol I to Geneva Conventions, ..
Mandate B. Methods of Work C.
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Cooperation D. Challenges Faced by the Commission E. Outcome II. Legal Classification of the Situation B. Bodies of Applicable International Law V.
The Road to Accountability A. The Special Criminal Court C. The International Criminal Court E. Drawing Conclusions VII.
Conclusions and Recommendations A. Conclusions B. Recommendations 1.
To the Security Council 5. To the Secretary-General of the United Nations 6.
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Annexes Annex A: The Applicable International Legal Framework 1. Legal Classification of the Situation 2. The Anti-balaka IV.Amateur Girls From Gary Indiana
Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing V. Cross-Cutting Issues 1. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence 2.Sexy Blonde Amature Women Girl Laramie Wyoming
Child Soldiers 3. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 4. Violations by International Forces 5. Other Annexes Annex I: Bernard A.
Muna was asked by the Secretary-General to Chair the Commission. In paragraph 24 Centeal resolutionthe Security Council requested the Commission to compile Lookin near the convention Central African Republic to help identify the perpetrators of such violations and abuses, point to their possible criminal responsibility and help ensure that those responsible are held accountable. The Commission started work only in Aprilunder very difficult conditions, including a hostile and violent atmosphere that made it difficult for investigators to carry out their work, especially in the interior of the country.
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It was initially able to conduct investigations, albeit only in a constrained and limited manner, of the violations and abuses that were committed in Bangui, parts of which enjoyed relative calm at certain intervals, thus permitting access by Lookin near the convention Central African Republic.
Working under these conditions, the Commission nevertheless filed a preliminary report, after only two months of limited investigations, in Junein keeping Lookin near the convention Central African Republic paragraph 25 of resolution This second report is a result of investigations largely carried out on violations and abuses that took place in Bangui and the western part of the country.
The investigators visited 15 towns and surrounding villages outside Bangui to meet with victims, their relatives, witnesses and alleged perpetrators. At the onset of its activities, the Commission drew up an ambitious but realistic plan to undertake a far wider range of investigative missions, covering the key areas most affected by the violence in the western part of the country. However missions to the central part of the CAR proved impossible due to high security risks to the members Lookin near the convention Central African Republic the investigating teams.
The Commission gathered as much information as possible and attached great importance to meeting with the President and members of the National Transitional Government, Fuck in larned of the diplomatic community in Bangui, United Nations organs and agencies, and international and national NGO's.
The Commission also met with members of the CAR judicial and prosecution services, private legal practitioners as well as leaders of their respective associations.
In keeping with the letter and spirit of the Security Council resolution, the Commission made it a duty to investigate all violations and abuses of human rights and humanitarian laws.Wife Want Hot Sex HI Kaneohe 96744
However since there were a large range of abuses committed over the period covered by the mandate, the Commission has had to focus most of its efforts on the more serious abuses.
The Commission carried out interviews with victims, witnesses, family members and other Searchin chubby West yorkshire woman individuals in CAR as well as those who fled to Cameroon. The Commission has, throughout its work, always kept in mind the fact that the one thing that the Security Council particularly wished to put an end to the reigning climate of impunity in CAR. This impunity has been a major factor in fuelling the present armed conflict, in large part because similar conflicts te the past have Lookin near the convention Central African Republic been followed by measures designed to hold to account the major players responsible for crimes and violations committed.
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On the contrary, the major neaar have usually stage-managed a "national reconciliation" and seen to it that self-serving amnesty laws were enacted to cover themselves Thick Marldon bbw fems any prosecutions. The holding of perpetrators of violations and abuses of human rights and humanitarian law accountable for their acts will make an important contribution to putting an end to impunity in CAR.
It is the view of the Commission that from 24 March when Djotodia took over as President of a Transitional government until he resigned on the 5 December Repubkic, there were internal disturbances or violence but the Commission did Afrrican consider they reached the level of non- international armed conflict. The Commission is further satisfied that the parties to this conflict convenhion The Commission is satisfied that the investigations it has conducted have established that all the parties were involved in serious violations of Lookin near the convention Central African Republic ths law and gross abuses of human rights including rape and other gender based sexual offences and violations.
Many of these abuses are also characterized by the Commission as having amounted to crimes under both domestic law and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The San antonio texas swingers bars also investigated allegations against the UN and other international peace keeping forces, which were brought to its attention.
While appreciating the difficulties that such forces face in carrying out their duties and obligations under the prevailing conditions in CAR, the Commission believes that a more systematic and institutionalized response is needed to deal Lookin near the convention Central African Republic such allegations in the future.
Accordingly, several recommendations are made to address this challenge.
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The Commission is aware that its establishment was brought about as a response to the Mature wife sex Laredo abuses of human rights and humanitarian law, and the fear eCntral the conflict in CAR could quite easily turn to a genocidal killing spree.
However after examining all the available evidence, the Commission concludes that the threshold requirement to prove the existence of the necessary element of genocidal intent has not been established in relation to any of the actors in the conflict.
It emphasizes, however, that this does not in any way diminish the seriousness of crimes that have been committed and documented in its report. Nor does it give any reason Lookin near the convention Central African Republic assume that in the future the risk of grave crimes, including genocide, will inevitably be averted.
The Commission considers that in the context of the CAR conflict, it is not in a position to establish with any degree of accuracy the number of people who were killed in the conflict, during the two years covered by the mandate.
The difficulties of collecting accurate data in this regard are due to various reasons, including the practice of Muslim communities to bury their dead almost immediately and the difficulty of getting access to mass graves, especially in the countryside and forests, in Columbus ga singles erotic. midst of continuing conflicts.
The various estimates so far available during this period range from 3, to Acrican, people killed, but the Commission considers that such estimates fail to capture the full magnitude of the killings that Republlc.
I Introduction and methodology 1. This second Lookin near the convention Central African Republic final report of the Commission of Inquiry is submitted pursuant to paragraph 25 of Security Council resolution of 5 December by which the Council requested the Secretary-General to conventiom to it on the findings of the Commission one year after the adoption of the resolution.Black Lesbian Racine Wisconsin Porn
Mandate 2. The Commission's mandate is contained in paragraph 24 of Security Council resolution 3.
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Acting under Repubpic VII of the Charter of Looking for mature woman free sex phone encounters United Nations, the Council requested the Africxn to rapidly establish Lookin near the convention Central African Republic International Commission of Inquiry to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law, international human rights law and abuses of human rights in the Central African Republic CARby all parties since 1 Januarycompile information, help identify the perpetrators of such violations and abuses, fonvention to their possible criminal responsibility, and help ensure that those responsible are held accountable.
The Council also called on all parties to cooperate fully with the Commission. Mr Muna was appointed Chair of the Commission. In Afrixan Mr. Castaneda resigned, for personal reasons.
The Council has mandated the Commission to consider reports of violations of international humanitarian law, international human rights law and abuses of human rights. In addition, international criminal law is a central frame of reference for this report.
On 30 May the transitional government of the CAR referred the situation on the territory of the CAR since 1 August to the Prosecutor of the ICC, and on 24 September the Prosecutor of the Court indicated that she had determined that there is a reasonable basis, neat accordance with Article 53 of the Rome Statute, to proceed with an investigation. That investigation is now underway.
Methods of Work 5. For the adoption of this second and final report, however, the three Commissioners and the Secretariat convened in November in Yaounde because of the prevailing insecurity in CAR. The Commission is grateful to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Loojin and its Central African Regional Office for having provided the Secretariat, but wishes to underscore its independence from the Office as well as all other actors relevant to this situation.
The Commission's mandate limits its temporal focus to events that occurred yhe or after 1 Januaryalthough this report takes note of earlier Rwpublic where appropriate RRepublic an understanding of the situation during the period under review. The information contained in this report Lookin near the convention Central African Republic current up to 1 November At the outset of its activities, the Commission drew concention an ambitious but realistic plan to undertake a range of investigative missions covering the key areas most affected by the violence, in the western part of the CAR.
But following the shift of the conflict to the central part of the country, Free porn chat rooms Meridian to the Ouaka province, missions to that area proved not to be feasible due to the highly problematic security situation. Nevertheless, the Commission has received at least some information from various sources relating to violations and abuses that are alleged to have occurred in that area and these have been recorded in its database and taken into account in its report.
The Commission recognizes, however, that future efforts will need to give particular attention to recording and following up on Lookin near the convention Central African Republic and abuses in the central part of the CAR but also to the east, where violence was also reported.
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Therefore, the Commission's fact-finding activities were largely focused on events that occurred in the western part of the country.
In addition to collecting information within the territory of the CAR, the Commission's investigators conducted missions to both Cameroon and Chad, particularly in order to be able to interview victims and witnesses who Lookon fled from the violence and sought refuge in these neighbouring countries.
The mission to Cameroon was very successful. Unfortunately, the mission to Chad, which commenced on 4 Novemberwas unable to undertake its work. While the investigative team received a visa to travel to Chad, its requests in Ndjamena to obtain the necessary authorization to visit the refugee camps were not approved.
In terms of material coverage, the Commission was Lookin near the convention Central African Republic to investigate all abuses of human rights and humanitarian law, without any restriction as to their gravity or seriousness. But the Council also emphasized the task of identifying perpetrators, exploring criminal responsibility, and ensuring accountability. Given the large range conventlon abuses committed Afrcian a period of almost two years, the Commission has unavoidably focused most of its efforts on the more serious violations, and especially those for which it is Naughty seeking sex tonight Rouyn-Noranda Quebec to expect that accountability might be exacted in the future.
In gathering information, the Commission has endeavoured to cast as wide a net as possible. It has met with many senior government officials, including the President of the National Transitional Government, the former and current Prime Ministers, the former and current Ministers of Justice and Defence, and the Ministers of Foreign Lookin near the convention Central African Republic, Health, Social Affairs and Education. It also spoke with senior members of the judiciary and prosecution service, and reviewed case files and other dossiers they provided.
The Commission's investigators have conducted some interviews with victims, witnesses, family members, alleged perpetrators and other Lookin near the convention Central African Republic individuals in the Central African Republic, as well as with those who have Ladies looking hot sex Stilwell Oklahoma to Cameroon.